Cross-domain mappings in the Louw-Nida lexicon

Here are two visualizations of mappings between semantic domains that can be found in the Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament (Louw & Nida 1989), supporting a talk to be given at the 2017 Annual meeting of the European Association of Biblical Studies, Berlin, 7-11 August 2017. It uses Hierarchical Edge Bundling in the implementation of Mike Bostock (

(Note that this website does not give access to the lexicon, but only gives some examples from it.)

Hovering with the mouse over a domain shows how domains are used as source domains (blue) or target domains (red) in the New Testament (according to the data in de Louw & Nida lexicon).

The body domain is almost exclusively used as a source domain. The following table shows for which target domains.

lap (κόλπος)01 GEOGRAPHY
venom (ἰός)02 SUBSTANCES
sting (κέντρον), scar (τύπος), wool (ἔριον), lap (κόλπος)06 ARTIFACTS
body (σῶμα), tongue (γλῶσσα), knee (γόνυ), face (πρόσωπον), flesh (σάρξ), hand (χείρ)09 PEOPLE
flesh (σάρξ)10 KINSHIP
body (σῶμα)11B GROUPS
blood (αἷμα), sting (κέντρον)20 VIOLENCE
belly (γαστήρ), blood (αἷμα), flesh (σάρξ)23 PHYSIOLOGICAL
eye (ὀφθαλμός), face (πρόσωπον), ear (οὖς), sting (κέντρον)24 SENSORY
belly (κοιλία), intestines (σπλάγχνα)25 EMOTIONS
belly (κοιλία), flesh (σάρξ), intestines (σπλάγχνα) 26 PSYCHOLOGICAL FACULTIES
face (ὄψις)30 THINK
eye (ὀφθαλμός)32 UNDERSTAND
tongue (γλῶσσα), mouth (στόμα), scar (στίγμα)33 COMMUNICATION
hand, finger (χείρ)37 CONTROL, RULE
flesh (σάρξ), scar (τύπος), body (σῶμα)58 NATURE, CLASS, EXAMPLE
body part (μέλος)63 WHOLE, PART
bodily (σωματικῶς)70 REAL, UNREAL
finger (δάκτυλος), right hand (δεξιά), horn (κέρας), hand (χείρ)76 POWER, FORCE
face (πρόσωπον), horn (κέρας), mouth (στόμα)79 FEATURES OF OBJECTS
face (πρόσωπον)83 SPATIAL POSITIONS
face (πρόσωπον)85 EXISTENCE IN SPACE
head (κεφαλή), body (σῶμα)87 STATUS
scar (τύπος)90 CASE

The following visualization zooms in on the domains that are mapping to or from the domains 12A (Supernatural beings) and 12B (Supernatural forces).

Domain 12A as a target domain:

01B REGIONS ABOVE THE EARTH: in the sky (ἐπουράνιος)from God
01B: REGIONS ABOVE THE EARTH: sky (οὐρανός)God
01B: REGIONS ABOVE THE EARTH: world above (ὕψιστος)the Most High
04A ANIMALS: animal (ζῷον)living being
06M IMAGES AND IDOLS: idol (εἴδωλον)false god
33O INFORM, ANNOUNCE: messenger (ἄγγελος)angel
38A PUNISH: punishment (δίκη)the goddess Justice
87C HIGH STATUS: prominence (μεγαλωσύνη)Majesty

Domain 12A as a source domain:

divine being (θεῖον)2E ROCK: sulfur
Holy Spirit (πνεῦμα)14B WIND: wind
Holy Spirit (πνεῦμα)34J BREATHE: breathe
Holy Spirit (πνεῦμα)26 PSYCHOLOGICAL FACULTIES: inner being
from the Spirit (πνευματικῶς/ῶς)26 PSYCHOLOGICAL FACULTIES: spiritual
Holy Spirit (πνεῦμα)30A THOUGHT: way of thinking
from the Spirit (πνευματικῶς)33C DISCOURSE TYPES: figuratively
Devil (διάβολος)33P INSULT, SLANDER: slanderer
the Helper (παράκλητος)35A HELP: helper
Lord (κύριος)37D RULE, GOVERN: ruler
from the Spirit (πνευματικός)41C PATTERNS OF BEHAVIOR: of spiritual conduct
Lord (κύριος)57A POSSESS: owner
from the Spirit (πνευματικός)79A PHYSICAL/SPIRITUAL: not physical
from the Spirit (πνευματικός)79B HUMAN/SPIRITUAL: supernatural
Lord (κύριος)87C HIGH STATUS: sir
Devil (διάβολος)88O BAD: wicked person
Satan (title) (Σατανᾶς)93A NAMES OF PERSONS: Satan (name)