Project Inleiding Taalkunde: Tamazight (Tharifit dialect)

 

Eron Pieren (0265055)

Ghalid el Kharbachi (0169188)

Hans-Jochen Koegler (0163783)

Maarten van Malland (9858202)

David van Paesschen (0216453)

 

Sentences

 

(1)      Ajadjeth        y-ufa                      cha                i-dallis-en

          King              (m, 3s)-find(past)     some            (m)-book-(pl)

 

‘The king found some books.’

 

(2)      Netta            y-eghr-a                  i-dallis-en        i         mme-s

          He                (m, 3s)-read-(past)   (m)-book-(pl)  to       son-his

 

‘He read the books to his son.’

 

(3)      Threthe         i-sedas-en                awy-en                             th-ahray-th

          Three           (m)-soldier-(pl)         stir-(m, 3pl, past)               (f)-soup-(f)

 

‘The three soldiers stirred the soup.’

 

(4)      Nitni              awe-in-teth              kbel     threthe                   thamert-in

          They            stir-(m, 3pl, past)-it   for      three                      hour-(pl)

 

‘They stirred it for three hours.’

 

(5)      Asedas                   togha-th                  y-emghar       o        y-ekbeh

          Soldier           to be-(m, 3s, past)            (m)-old         and     (m)-ugly

 

‘The soldier was old and ugly.’

 

(6)      Th-ighrem-t    ka-t     khe     ijj n     th-ewra-th      zathei       ijj n       omazdal

          (f)-Castle-(f)   is-(f)   on      a        (f)-hill-(f)        near          a            lake

 

‘The castle is on a hill near a lake.’

 

(7)      Antonio          y-zeddgh       the     Venis

          Antonio          (m, 3s)-live    in        Venis

 

‘Antonio lives in Venis.’

 

(8)      Duncan         y-iwedh                   gha     th-igrem-t      ethennath

          Duncan         (m, 3s)-arrive(past)   at       (f)-castle-(f)   yesterday

 

‘Duncan arrived at the castle yesterday.’

 

(9)      Adallis            n        Prospero        ad-y-awedh    imalas           id-y-egga-n

          Book             of       Prospero        (fut.)-arrive    week             next

 

‘Prospero’s book will arrive next week.’

 

(10)    Atharras        y-sabhan       y-ewscha                 ijj n     odallis            i        

          Man             (m)-kind        (m, 3s)-give(past)     a        book             to

 

          yadje-s

          daughter-his

 

‘The kind man gave a book to his daughter.’

 

(11)    Netta-th        at-esarss       adallis            khe     ijj n     arkoesi

          He-(f)           (fut.)-put       book             on      a        chair

 

‘She will put the book on a chair.’

 

(12)    Macbeth        y-zemma       ad-then-y-af             the     thiszgi

          Macbeth        (m, 3s)-may  (fut.)-them-(m)-find  in        forest

 

‘Macbeth may find them in the forest.’

 

(13)    Falstaff                   y-sw-a                    ijj n     arkas            n        beerra

          Falstaff                   (m, 3s)-drink-(past)   a        glass             of       beer

 

‘Falstaff drank a glass of beer.’

 

(14)    Falstaff                   y-sw-a                    minzi             netta            togha           

          Falstaff                   (m, 3s)-drink-(past)   because        he                was

 

          y-effoth

          (m)-thirsty

 

‘Falstaff drank because he was thirsty.’

 

(15)    Miranda         togh-at                   th-essen        ka       Prospero        gha-s

          Mirande         AUX                       (f)-know         that    Prospero        had

 

          attas             i-dallis-en

          many            (m)-book-(pl)

 

‘Miranda knew that Prospero had many books.’

 

(16)    Hamlet           y-enna                    ka       yamma-s       togh-at

          Hamlet          (m, 3s)-say(past)     that    mother-his     (f)-to be-(past)

 

th-aafant-t

(f)-disloyal-(f)

 

‘Hamlet said that his mother was disloyal.’


(17)    Portia            th-enna                   i         Shylock          ka       ikhassa-s

          Portia            (f, 3s)-say(past)                Shylock          that    should

 

          ad-y-iri                    y-sbah          ak       Antonio

          (fut.)-(m, 3s)-to be   (m)-kind        to       Antonio

 

‘Portia told Shylock that he should be kind to Antonio.’

 

(18)    Macbeth        togha            y-ezzo           adh-i-negh               ajadjeth

          Macbeth        AUX              (m)-try          (fut.)-(m)-kill            king

 

‘Macbeth tried to kill the king.’

 

(19)    Macbeth        togha            y-azzo           adh-i-zaer                ijj n       t-gezan-t    

          Macbeth        AUX              (m)-try          (fut.)-(m)-meet        a         (f)-witch-(f)

 

         

‘Macbeth tried to meet a witch.’

 

(20)    Prospero        y-ewscha                 awar             mahend         a(d)-s-y-ewsch             adallis

          Prospero       (m, 3s)-give(past)     his word         to                 (fut.)-her-give               book

 

‘Prospero has promised to give her the book.’


Lexicon

 

 

Tamazight

English

 

Tamazight

English

 

verbs

 

af

ghar

awe

iri

zthegh

awedh

awsch

sarss

ssoe

ssen

ini

egg

negh

zaer

to find

to read

to stir

to be

to live

to arrive

to give

to put

to drink

to know

to say

to try

to kill

to meet

determiners

 

cha

threthe

attas

some

three

many

 

pronouns

 

netta

nitni

nettath

he

they

she

 

prepositions

i

kbel

khe

zathei

the

gha

n

ak

to

for

on

near

in

at

of

to / with

adverbs

ethennath

yesterday

conjunctions

o

and

 

nouns

ajadjeth

adallis

mme

asedas

thahrayth

thamert

thighremt

thewrath

omazdal

imalas

atharras

yadje

arkoesi

thiszgi

arkas

thagazant

king

book

son

soldier

soup

hour

castle

hill

lake

week

man

daughter

chair

forest

glass

witch

subordinating

conjunctions

minzi

ka

mahend

because

that

to

 

articles

ijj n

a(n)

 

 

adjectives

yemghar

yekbeh

idyeggan

isabhan

yeffoth

thaafant

old (m)

ugly (m)

next (m)

kind (m)

thirsty (m)

disloyal (f)

 

 


Pronouns

 

Tamazight has pronouns. In spoken language they are optional, so they can be null. In Tamazight the verb has subject agreement suffixes on it, indicating the person, gender and number of the subject.

 

Tamazight

English

Example

necc
cek
cem
nettat
netta
neccin/necnin
kenniw
kennintt
nitni
nitentti

I

you (m)

you (f)

she

he

we

you (pl, m)

you (pl, f)

they (m)

they (f)

Necc ttettegh Accir / I eat yoghurt
Cek war ttbeddired / you never change
Cem waha? / only you?
Nettat tecna / she is beautiful
Netta d amehvdvar / he is a student
Neccin ssa / we’re from here
Kenniw tirar m mlihv / you play well
Kennintt zi Nadûr / you come from Nador
Nitni d imezwura / they’re first
Nitentti Ruhventt / they’re gone

yi
c/k
m
s
negh
wem
centt/kentt
sen
sentt

me
you (m)
you (f)
him/ her
us
you (pl, m)
you (pl, f)
them (m)
them (f)

Netta yuca yi / he gave me
Netta yuca c / he gave you
Nettva yuca m / he gave you
Netta yuca s / he gave him (her)
Netta yuca negh / he gave us
Netta yuca wem / he gave you
Netta yuca centt / he gave you
Netta yuca sen / he gave them
Netta yuca sentt / he gave them

inu
nnec
nnem
nnes/ines
nnes/ines
nnegh
nwem/nkoum
ncentt/nkentt
nsen
nsentt

my
your (m)
your (f)
his
her
our
your (pl, m)
your (pl, f)
their (m)
their (f)

Tammûrt inu / my land

Aqrab nnec / your bag
Acewwaf nnem d azirar / your hair is long
Tira nnes (ines) cnintt / his handwriting is pretty
Taddart nnes (ines) / her house
Dcar nnegh / our village
Agharrabu nwem / your boat
Tamzida ncentt / your school
Tighuri nsen / their education
Tamadduketc nsentt / their friend (f)

 

Articles

 

Tamazight

English

Example

a / u

 

 

 

in

these / this

 

 

 

those / that

Aryaz a / this man
Tamghart a / this woman

Taddart a / this house
Timgharin a / these women
Aryaz in / that man
Tahvenjîrt in / that girl
Aryazen in / those men
Tihvenjirin in / those girls

 

Tamazight has no definite articles.

Example:

 

issawar waryaz         issawar ijj n waryaz

‘the man talks’                   ‘a man talks’


Auxiliary verbs

 

Tamazight has auxiliary verbs, eg. ‘togha’ (15,18,19).

The morpheme ‘a(d)-‘ shows that the verb is future tensed (11, 12).

In English we use the auxiliary verb ‘will’ or ‘shall’.

 

Case marking

 

Tamazight has no kind of case marking to indicate which DP is the subject, the object, the indirect object, etc. The distinction of them relies exclusively on the order of constituents within the sentence.

 

Agreement

 

Tamazight exhibits subject-verb agreement. In Tamazight the verb has subject agreement suffixes on it, indicating the person, gender and number of the subject.

 

Example (1): ajadjeth         y-ufa

the king         (m, 3s)-find(past)

‘the king found’

 

Example (3):  i-sedas-en                awy-en

                   (m)-soldier-(pl)         stir-(m, 3pl, past)

                   ‘the soldiers stirred’

 

There is also an agreement between adjective and noun phrase, concerning gender and number.

Example (5):  y-emghar       o        y-ekbeh

                   (m)-old          and     (m)-ugly

                   ‘old and ugly’ (referring to ‘asedas’ / soldier (m))

 

Basic constituent order

 

The basic constituent order for Tamazight is S-V-O-IO.

Example (10):          ‘Atharras ysabhan yewscha ijj n odallis i yadjes.’

                                [          S         ] [    V    ] [     O     ]   [  IO ]


Phrase structure rules

 

PP      ®       P DP             the thiszgi / in the forest

AP      ®       A (PP)           ysbah (ak Antonio) / kind (to Antonio)

NP      ®       N (PP)           arkas (n beerra) / glass (of beer)

DP      ®       (D) NP          (ijj n) thewrath / (a) hill

DP      ®       Name           Macbeth

DP      ®       Pronoun         netta / he

NP      ®       NP A             imalas idyeggan / next week

VP      ®       V DP             yufa cha idallisen / found some books

VP      ®       V PP             yiwedh gha thighremt / arrived at the castle

VP      ®       V CP             yswa minzi … / drank because …

VP      ®       V VP             yzemma adthenyaf / may find

VP      ®       V DP PP         yeghra idallisen i mmes / read the books to his son

VP      ®       V DP CP        thenna i Shylock ka ... / told Shylock that …

S        ®       DP VP           ajadjeth yufa cha idallisen / the king found some books

CP      ®       C S               ka yammas toghat taafant / that his mother was disloyal

CP      ®       C VP             mahend a(d)syewsch adallis / to give her the book

 

Tree diagrams

 

(1):

‘Ajadjeth yufa cha idallisen.’

 

 

S

 

 

 

 

 

DP

 

 

VP

 

 

 

NP

 

V

 

 

DP

 

N

 

yufa

 

D

 

NP

ajadjeth

 

 

 

cha

 

N

 

 

 

 

 

 

idallisen

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(2):

‘Netta yeghra idallisen i mmes.’

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

 

 

 

DP

 

 

 

VP

 

 

 

 

Pronoun

 

V

 

DP

 

 

PP

 

netta

 

yeghra

 

NP

 

P

 

DP

 

 

 

 

N

 

i

 

NP

 

 

 

 

idallisen

 

 

 

N

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

mmes

(6):

‘Thighremt kat khe ijj n thewrath zathei ijj n omazdal.’

 

 

S

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DP

 

 

VP

 

 

 

 

 

NP

 

V

 

 

PP

 

 

 

N

 

kat

 

P

 

 

DP

 

thighremt

 

 

 

khe

 

D

 

NP

 

 

 

 

 

 

ijj n

 

(…)

 

 

(…)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

 

PP

 

 

 

 

 

thewrath

 

P

 

 

DP

 

 

 

 

 

zathei

 

D

 

NP

 

 

 

 

 

 

ijj n

 

N

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

omazdal

 

 

(9):

‘Adallis n Prospero adyawedh imalas idyeggan.’

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DP

 

 

 

 

VP

 

 

 

NP

 

 

 

V

 

DP

 

N

 

 

PP

 

adyawedh

 

NP

 

adallis

 

P

 

DP

 

NP

 

A

 

 

N

 

Name

 

N

 

idyeggan

 

 

 

 

Prospero

 

imalas

 

 

 (15):

‘Miranda toghat thessen ka Prospero ghas attas idallisen.’

 

 

S

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DP

 

 

VP

 

 

 

 

 

Name

 

V

 

 

VP

 

 

 

Miranda

 

toghat

 

V

 

 

CP

 

 

 

 

 

thessen

 

C

 

S

 

 

 

 

 

 

ka

 

(…)

 

 

(…)

 

 

 

 

 

DP

 

 

VP

 

 

 

Name

 

V

 

 

DP

 

Prospero

 

ghas

 

D

 

NP

 

 

 

 

attas

 

idallisen

(20):

‘Prospero yewscha awar mahend a(d)syewsch adallis.’

 

 

S

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DP

 

 

VP

 

 

 

 

 

Name

 

V

 

DP

 

 

CP

 

Prospero

 

yewscha

 

NP

 

C

 

VP

 

 

 

 

N

 

mahend

 

(…)

 

 

 

 

Awar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(…)

 

V

 

DP

a(d)syewsch

 

adallis


C-selection and S-selection

 

(1) af            (Xagent,        Xtheme)

                       ½                 ½

                    subject                   complement: DP

 

(2) ghar        (Xagent,        Xtheme,        Xgoal)

                       ½                 ½                ½

 subject         object           indirect object

 

(3) awe         (Xagent,        Xtheme)

                       ½                 ½

                    subject         complement: DP

 

(5) iri            (Xagent,        Xtheme)

                       ½                 ½

                    subject         complement: AP

 

(7) zthegh     (Xagent,        Xtheme)

                       ½                 ½

                    subject         complement: [PP the DP]

 

(8) awedh      (Xagent,        Xtheme)

                       ½                 ½

                    subject         complement: [PP gha DP]

 

(10) awsch     (Xagent,        Xtheme,        Xgoal)

                       ½                 ½                ½

                    subject         object           indirect object

 

(11) ssars      (Xagent,        Xtheme,        Xgoal)

                       ½                 ½                ½

                    subject         object           indirect object

 

(13) ssoe       (Xagent)

                       ½   

                    subject

 

(15) ssen       (Xagent,        Xtheme)

                       ½                 ½

                    subject         complement: CP

 

(16) ini          (Xagent,        Xtheme,        Xgoal)

                       ½                 ½                ½

                    subject         object: CP      indirect object


(18) egg        (Xagent,        Xtheme)

                       ½                 ½

                    subject         complement: CP

 

(18) negh      (Xagent,        Xtheme)

                       ½                 ½

                    subject         complement: DP

 

(19) zaer       (Xagent,        Xtheme)

                       ½                 ½

                    subject         complement: DP

 

Determiners

 

ora A B = True                  if and only if (A ۸ B) = Ø

‘no’

 

mmkul A B = True              if and only if A Í B

‘every’

 

ezyen amegran A B = True  if and only if (2 ´ ½A ۸ B½) > A

‘most’

 

cha A B = True                  if and only if (A ۸ B) ¹ Ø

‘some’

 

threthe A B = True             if and only if (A ۸ B) = 3

‘three’

 

Prepositional constructions

 

Portia thenna i Shylock ka ikhassas adyiri ysbah ak Antonio.

‘Portia told Shylock that he should be kind to Antonio.’

 

ak = with

 

Negative polarity expressions

 

(i)       ‘wa     yekki             mani.’

          neg.    he goes         anywhere

          ‘he doesn’t go anywhere.’

 

*        ‘yekki mani.’

 

(ii)      ‘wa     yessin           gaa.’

          neg.    he knows       at all

          ‘’he knows nothing at all.’

 

*        ‘yessin gaa.’

 

(iii)      ‘wa     thin               waloe.’

          neg.    there            nothing

          ‘there’s nothing.’

 

*        ‘thin waloe.’