Project: description of Portuguese

Exact translation of the example sentences:

 

 

English

Portuguese

1

The king found some books.

O rei encontrou alguns livros

2

He read the books to his son.

Leu os livros au seu filho

3

The three soldiers stirred the soup.

Os três soldados agitaram a sopa

4

They stirred it for three hours.

Agitaram-no por tres horas

5

The soldier was old and ugly.

O soldado era velho e feio

6

The castle is on a hill near a lake.

O castelo está num monte perto dum lago

7

Antonio lives in Venice.

Antonio vive em Veneza

8

Duncan arrived at the castle yesterday.

Duncan chegou no castelo ontem

9

Prospero's book will arrive next week.

O livro do Prospero chegará semana seguinte

10

The kind man gave a book to his daughter.

O homem amável deu o livro nà sua filha

11

She will put the book on a chair.

Ela porá o livro numa cadeira

12

Macbeth may find them in the forest (assume that them refers to people).

Macbeth pode(=kan)/poderia (=zou kunnen) encontrá-los na florestra

13

Falstaff drank a glass of beer.

Falstaff bebeu uma vidra da cerveja

14

Falstaff drank because he was thirsty.

Falstaff bebeu porque tinha sede

15

Miranda knew that Prospero had many books.

Miranda sabia que Prospero tinha muitos livros

16

Hamlet said that his mother was disloyal.

Hamlet disse que a sua mãe não era fiel

17

Portia told Shylock that he should be kind to Antonio.

Portia. disse a s. que ele deveria ser amável ao Antonio

18

Macbeth tried to kill the king.

Macbeth tentou matar o rei

19

Macbeth tried to meet a witch.

Macbeth tentou encontrar uma bruxa

20

Prospero has promised to give her the book.

Prospero prometeu dar-lhe o livro

 

Morpheme-by-morpheme translation:

 

 

1

 

 

2

 

 

3

 

 

4

 

 

5

 

 

6

 

 

7

 

 

8

 

 

9

 

 

10

 

 

11

 

 

12

 

 

13

 

 

14

 

 

15

 

 

16

 

 

17

 

 

18

 

 

19

 

 

20

 

The king found     some   books.

   O   rei  encontrou alguns livros

 

He read the books  to his son.

Leu     os  livros au seu filho

 

The three      soldiers stirred  the soup.

Os  três       soldados agitaram a      sopa

 

They stirred it  for three hours.

Agitaram     -no por tres  horas

 

The soldier was old    and ugly.

O   soldado era velho  e   feio

 

The castle  is    on a hill  near  a   lake.

O   castelo está  num  monte perto dum lago

 

Antonio lives in Venice.

Antonio vive  em Veneza

 

Duncan arrived at the castle  yesterday.

Duncan chegou  no     castelo ontem

 

Prospero's book     will arrive next week.

O livro do Prospero chegará     semana seguinte

 

The kind man   gave a  book  to his   daughter.

O homem amável       deu   um livro a  sua   filha

 

She will put the book  on a chair.

Ela porá     o   livro numa cadeira

 

Macbeth may  find     them in the forest    (them refers to people).

Macbeth pode encontrá-los  na     florestra

 

Falstaff drank       a     glass of    beer.

Falstaff bebeu       uma   vidra da    cerveja

 

Falstaff drank because he was   thirsty.

Falstaff bebeu porque  tinha    sede

 

Miranda knew  that Prospero had   many   books.

Miranda sabia que  Prospero tinha muitos livros

 

Hamlet said  that his mother was disloyal.

Hamlet disse que  a sua mãe  não era fiel

 

Portia told      Shylock that he  should  be  kind   to Antonio.

Portia disse a Shylock que  ele deveria ser amável ao Antonio.

 

Macbeth tried to kill  the king.

Macbeth tento u  matar o   rei

 

Macbeth tried to meet      a    witch.

Macbeth tento u  encontrar uma bruxa

 

   Prospero has promised to give her the book.

   Prospero prometeu      dar-lhe  o   livro

 

Idiomatic gloss:

 

(A lexicon based on the example sentences for Portuguese, with a translation for each word. The lexicon is organized in terms of lexical category.)

 

ENG

POR

 

ENG

POR

 

 

 

 

 

VERBS

 

 

ADJECTIVES

 

king

rei

 

old (m, singular)

velho

book

livro

 

old (f, singular)

velha

books

livros

 

old (m, plural)

velhos

son

filho

 

old (f, plural)

velhas

soldier

soldado

 

ugly (m, singular)

feio

soldiers

soldados

 

ugly (f, singular)

feia

soup

sopa

 

ugly (m, plural)

feios

hour

hora

 

ugly (f, plural)

feias

hours

horas

 

kind

amável

castle

castelo

 

kind (plural)

amáveis

hill

monte

 

 

 

lake

lago

 

ADVERBS

 

venice

veneza

 

thirsty

sede

man

homem

 

disloyal

fiel

daughter

filha

 

old

velho

chair

cadeira

 

ugly

feio

forest

florestra

 

kind

amável

glass

vidra

 

 

 

beer

cerveja

 

PRONOUNS

 

mother

mãe

 

I

eu

witch

bruxa

 

you

tu

 

 

 

he/it

ele

NOUNS

 

 

she (singular)

ela

to find (inf)

encontrar

 

we

nós

found (he, past)

encontrou

 

they

eles/elas

to read (inf)

ler

 

you (plural)

vós

read (he, past)

leu

 

me

mim

to stir (inf)

agitar

 

him

ele

stirred (mv, past)

agitaram

 

her

ela

to be (inf)

estar

 

us

nós

was (he, past)

era

 

them

eles

is (the, present)

está

 

my (m, sing)

meu

to live (inf)

viver

 

my (f, sing)

minha

lives (mv, present)

vive

 

my (m, plural)

meus

to arrive (inf)

chegar

 

my (f, plural)

minhas

arrived (he, past)

chegou

 

your/his/her/their (m, sing)

seu

will arrive (it, future)

chegará

 

your/his/her/their (f, sing)

sua

to give (inf)

dar

 

your/his/her/their (m, plural)

seus

gave (he, past)

deu

 

your/his/her/their (f, plural)

suas

to put (inf)

porar

 

our (m, sing)

nosso

will put (she, future)

porá

 

our (f, sing)

nossa

to find (inf)

encontrar

 

our (m, plural)

nossos

to may

poder

 

our (f, plural)

nossas

may (he, present)

pode

 

 

 

to drink (inf)

beber

 

DETERMINERS

 

drank (he, past)

bebeu

 

the (m)

o

to know (inf)

saber

 

the (v)

a

knew (she, past)

sabia

 

a (m)

um

to say (inf)

diter

 

a (v)

uma

said (he, past)

disse

 

some (m, sing.)

algum

to tell (inf)

diter

 

some (f, sing.)

alguma

told (he, past)

disse

 

some (m, plur.)

alguns

to try (inf)

tentar

 

some (v, plur.)

algumas

tried (he, past)

tento

 

many (m/f, sing.)

muito

to kill (inf)

matar

 

many (m,plur.)

muitos

to meet (inf)

encontrar

 

many (f, plural)

muitas

to promise (inf)

prometer

 

three

três

has promised (he, past)

prometeu

 

next

seguinte

to give (inf)

dar

 

 

 

 

 

 

PREPOSITIONS

 

 

 

 

for

por

 

 

 

on

 

 

 

 

on a (m)

num

 

 

 

on a (f)

numa

 

 

 

near

 

 

 

 

near a (m)

perto dum

 

 

 

near a (f)

perto duma

 

 

 

at

 

 

 

 

at the (m)

no

 

 

 

at the (f)

na

 

 

 

in (m)

no

 

 

 

in (f)

na

 

 

 

to (m)

?

 

 

 

to (f)

?

 

Additional tasks/questions:

In the table above, all multi-morpheme words are put together with their basic form. The underlying rules are as follows:

 

NOUNS

In plural form, an –s is added to the singular form when the noun ends on a vowel:

livro à livros, soldado à soldados

If the word ends in consonant other than l or m, -es is added:

                        Português à Portuguêses

                        (note: there is no such noun in the examples above)

There are further exceptions, but because of their rare appearance its beyond the scope of this project to sum them all up.

 

VERBS

Three infinitive endings are regular: -ar, -er and –ir. In the example sentences only –ar and –er appear, in three different tenses: present, past and future.

Rules for verbs are according to the person and are best represented in a table. For a sample of regular verbs extracted from the examples above:

 

 

present

past

future

AGITAR
(to stir)

S1
S2
S3
P1
P2
P3

agito

agitas

agita

agitamos

agitais

agitam

agitei

agitaste

agitou

agitámos

agitastes

agitaram

agitarei

agitarás

agitará

agitaremos

agitareis

agitarão

PROMETER
(to promise)

S1
S2
S3
P1
P2
P3

prometo

prometes

promete

prometemos

prometeis

prometem

prometí

prometeste

prometeu

prometémos

prometestes

prometeram

prometerei

prometerás

prometerá

prometeremos

prometereis

prometerão

ENCONTRAR
(to meet)

S1
S2
S3
P1
P2
P3

encontro

encontras

encontra

encontramos

encontrais

encontram

encontrei

encontraste

encontrou

encontrámos

encontrastes

encontraram

encontrarei

encontrarás

encontrará

encontraremos

encontrareis

encontrarão

(bold indicates nouns from the example sentences above)

 

In irregular verbs, of which ‘to be’ is the most frequently used, the verb ends differ.

Portuguese has pronouns. They can be categorized in personal pronouns (I, you, he, they; me, him, her, us, etc.), possessive pronouns (my, your, her, our, their, etc.), interrogative pronouns (who, what, which, how, etc.) and reflexive pronouns (myself, herself, ourselves, etc.). In the samples above there are plenty of personal and possesive pronouns; they are summed up in the lexicon. The relations ar as follows:

Number

Person

Subject

(I, you, we, etc.)

Direct Object

(me, you, us)

Indirect Object (to me, to us)

without preposition (null)

with
preposition

Sing.

1st

eu

me

me

a mim

2nd

tu

te

te

a ti

3rd

m

ele

o

lhe

a ele

f

ela

a

lhe

a ela

polite

você

você

você

a você

reflexive

--

se

se

a si

Plural

1st

nós

nos

nos

a nós

2nd

vós

vos

vos

a vós

3rd

m

eles

os

lhes

a eles

f

elas

as

lhe

a elas

polite

vocês

vocês

vocês

a vocês

refexive

--

se

se

a si

(source: http://www.orbilat.com/Modern_Romance/Ibero-Romance/Portuguese/Grammar/Portuguese-Pronouns.html)

 

The pronouns are often null when used as subject in present, as in:

 

She            will put             the       book    on a     chair.

(Ela)          porá                 o          livro     numa    cadeira

 

I     lost       all

-    Perdi    tuo

 

Using null pronouns is optional. Nonetheless, as object or indirect object, the use of pronouns is obligate. Remarkable is if when used as an indirect object, the pronoun is written as a suffix:

 

Prospero    has promised    to give her        the       book.

Prospero    prometeu         dar-lhe             o          livro

Portuguese has both definitive and indefinitive articles. They are related to gender and number, as follows:

 

Definite Article

Indefinite Article

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

Masculine

o

os

um

uns

Feminine

a

as

uma

umas

Tensed sentences are allowed to occur as embedded clauses. An example of it is sentence 17:

 

Portia   told      Shylock           that     he        should             be        kind     to         Antonio.

Portia   disse a Shylock           que      ele       deveria ser      amável ao       Antonio.

 

As in English, the sentence structure is identicale to that of English. No different word order, complementizers or special suffixes occur.

No auxiliary verbs occur in Portuguese; affixes in the main verb are used in stead.

Prospero's book          will arrive                     next week.

O livro do Prospero     chegará            na        semana seguinte

Here, in the main verb chegará is the suffix for the auxiliary verb will.

A subject-verb agreement exists – see the subject of morphological rules for the exact influence of the subject on the verb.

The basis constituent order is SVO (Subject-Verb-Object), as in:

 

The      king      found               some    books.

O         rei        encontrou         alguns   livros

SUBJECT       VERB              OBJECT

 

Indirect objects are, when available, placed after the object. Determiners are placed ahead of the subject or object to which it is related.

encontrar (to find)

subject, complement: [DP]

 

sobrer (to put)

subject, complement: [DP]

encontrar (to meet)

subject, complement: [pp com DP]

 

poder (to may)

 

livrar (to read)

subject, complement: [DP]

 

beber (to drink)

subject, complemet: [DP]

agitarar (to stir)

subject, complement: [DP]

 

saber (to know)

subject, complement: [pp que CP]

estar (to be)

subject, complement: [AP, DP]

 

tever (to have)

subject, complement: [DP,CP]

viver (to live)

subject, complement: [pp em DP]

 

diter (to say)

subject, complement: [pp que CP]

chegar (to arrive)

subject, complement: [pp no DP]

 

tentar (to try)

subject, complement: [CP]

dar (to give)

subject, complement: [DP], ind.object [pp a DP]

 

prometer (to promise)

subject, complement: [V], complement: [DP]