Blok 4: Maart-April 2002
Trans 10, kamer 2.18
3512 JK Utrecht
This course provides an introduction to the techniques and tools that
are necessary for the implementation of precise and extensible
grammars which are required both in research and in industrial
applications. Computational grammars constitute an essential component
of text understanding systems, spell-checkers, grammar-checkers,
machine translation systems and communication tools for disabled
The course will combine background lectures with practical exercises
on how to formalize linguistic knowledge working within the framework
of Head-driven Phrase Structure
Grammar (HPSG) (Pollard and Sag 1987,
1994). This framework has the advantage of being well suited both for
theoretical linguistic work and for computational implementations.
HPSG can be defined as a constraint-based, lexicalist approach to
grammatical theory. It is based on the assumption that human
linguistic sentence processing has a powerful lexical basis. It is
for this reason that its notion of phrase structure is built around
the concept of a lexical head which encodes information that
determines crucial grammatical properties of the phrase it
projects. Furthermore, HPSG is a surface-based grammar formalism in
that it provides a direct characterization of the actual surface order
of string elements in a sentence. It can also be viewed as a
declarative approach to grammar since the association between strings
and informational elements are defined in terms of what
associations are possible and not how they are computed. The
HPSG informational elements are feature structures, which are
partial function from features to their value.
The implementation of HPSG grammar fragments will be conducted within
the processing system
HDrug, which has been developed at the University of Groningen for
formalization and visualisation of constraint-based grammars.
The course will compare HPSG to other grammatical models such as
Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG) and Tree Adjoining Grammar (TAG).
[ Dutch version ]
Unification grammars, formal grammars, features, syntax.
Books and papers
The books/papers listed below are meant for reference. Only selected chapters
will be used during the course.
Abeille' A. 1993.
Les Nouvelles Syntaxes, Grammaires d'unification et analyse du
francaise. Paris: Armand Colin.
(Introduction contains an overview of the development of
Pollard C. and I. Sag (1987)
Information based syntax and
Pollard C. and I. Sag (1994)
Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar. Stanford:
Sag I. and T. Wasow (1999)
Syntactic Theory. A formal introduction. Stanford:
(Appendix on the development of Generative Grammar)
Shieber S. (1986)
An introduction to unification-based approaches to
Various grammar formalisms- webpages
HPSG - Logical foundations
Various grammar implementation tools - webpages
Material for making slides for the presentation
||Trans 1 (Uithof), 0.32
|| from 14-3
||Kromme Nieuwe gracht 80, 2.05
Onderwijsvorm: 4 uur hoorcollege en 2 uur werkcollege
||Introduction to unification grammars. History:
unification grammars as a criticism to
Transformational grammars and a way to formalize
grammars. Development: DCG,FUG,PATR. Different types
of formal grammars.
||Features to represent linguistic information. Way
features are used in various grammar
formalisms. Feature theory. Unification. Subsumption.
||HPSG - general description. Linguistic signs as
typed feature structures. The use of types and
||Features used to represent linguistic information
in HPSG. Different kinds of features: atomic,
complex. Lexical entries in HPSG.
|| Generalizations in the
lexicon. Morphology in HPSG.
||The schemas of immediate dominance and the
principles that govern the good formation of the
phrases. Complementizers, modifiers and determiners.
|| Raising vs. control
|| Long distance dependencies.
|| HPSG vs. other grammar formalisms (TAG and LFG)
|| Discussion HPSG papers
||Discussion HPSG papers
||Talk by G. Bouma about Alpino, a large coverage
grammar of Dutch
|| KNG80 0.09-0.11-0.12
||13.00 - 15.00
In the werkcollege we will have hands-on sessions to get acquainted
with the implementation of HPSG grammars. The system HDrug will be
adopted to implement the phenomena discussed during the hoorcollege.
||12.00 - 15.00
Here is a copy of the exam (3-5-01).
which can be used as proeftentamen.
What do I need to know for the exam ???
If you have questions about the practicum or about the proeftentamen,
you can come to the spreekuur, Do 25-4 from 11:00 til 13:00 in my room (Trans
- The relevant chapters from Pollard and Sag 1994 to be found by
the secretary office CKI;
- slides (online);
- articles presented by students (online), in particular:
- van Noord and Bouma (1994);
- Monachesi (1998);
- Rentier (1994);
- van Noord and Bouma (1997)
- article related to Gosse's presentation (will be online);
- grammars developed during the practicum.
Evaluation 70% exam, 30% practicum exercises
De uitslag van het tentamen vind je
De uitslag van het hertentamen vind je
|| 20 augustus
|| KNG 29, zaal 0.22
Check het rooster op de CKI web-pagina.